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Munich, Germany

University Hospital LMU Munich



The LMU Clinic in Munich is one of the largest university hospitals in Germany. Included in the top 15 best clinics in Europe, it is a center of high-performance medicine, innovation and medical-technological progress, in which individual care for patients, safety and trust are combined.
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University Hospital LMU Munich

University Hospital of the Ludwig Maximilian University is one of the most famous institutions in Germany. This is a large center consisting of dozens of departments and providing medical care in a variety of areas. The most experienced specialists work here, and the latest scientific research is carried out. About 500,000 patients visit the clinic every year.

The LMU University Hospital Munich is divided into two campuses — Grossharden and Innestadt.
Includes 29 specialized clinics, 11 institutes and 7 departments.

Advantages of the LMU Munich

The highly qualified doctors of the LMU University Hospital Munich guarantee the highest quality of service and demonstrate high results in the treatment of the most complex diseases. Thanks to this, LMU Munich is associated with quality and a high level of service.
Highly Qualified Doctors
Narrow-profile specialists with vast medical experience.
01
Latest Diagnostic Equipment
Possibility to undergo diagnostics at an accelerated pace.
02
Effective Approaches to Treatment
Use of modern methods in surgery, improved types of therapy, latest drugs.
03

Achievements of the LMU Munich — International Awards

LMU Мюнхен
LMU Мюнхен
LMU Мюнхен
LMU Мюнхен
LMU Мюнхен
LMU Мюнхен

LMU's Specialization

At the LMU University Hospital Munich, you can undergo treatment in a variety of areas and get a positive result. The treatment is carried out by doctors whose knowledge is recognized all over the world.

Oncology

In most cases, the diagnosis of cancer overtakes patients and their relatives completely unprepared and in a short time changes their usual life. At LMU Munich, patients receive individualized treatment and supportive care to improve their quality of life while fighting the disease.
Lung Cancer Center
In the lung cancer center of the LMU Munich, diagnostics and treatment are carried out at the highest level in accordance with national and international protocols. The center is certified by the German Cancer Society. Patients receive special oncological, psychoanalytic and palliative care.

The competence of specialists in basic and clinical research, as well as effective diagnostics and therapy, make it possible to achieve positive results in the fight against the disease. The main goal of the center is the long-term improvement of the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with lung cancer.
Liver Center
Liver Center at the LMU Munich occupies a leading position in the rating list of international centers for the fight against oncology. Diagnostics, treatment and care of patients with liver cancer is carried out at the highest medical and scientific level. Since liver cancer is an interdisciplinary problem, specialists from various fields closely cooperate in the center. This allows patients to choose the most effective methods of dealing with the disease.

The hospital offers:
  • diagnostics of liver tumors
  • surgical interventions for benign and malignant liver tumors
  • liver transplantation
  • interventional radiological interventions
  • immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy
  • structured prevention and rehabilitation.
The best possible concept is determined individually for each patient within the framework of an interdisciplinary oncology conference.
Breast Center
Mammary gland cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in women. At present, the best chances of survival can only be achieved with timely and reliable diagnostics, followed by interdisciplinary high-quality therapy, which is planned from the very beginning, taking into account the nature of the tumor.
The center offers the most modern methods of breast cancer therapy under the supervision of highly qualified specialists with many years of experience.

Breast Center of the LMU Munich offers:
  • diagnostics and therapy of all benign and malignant breast diseases in women and men;
  • modern diagnostic methods;
  • all methods of breast surgery, including reconstruction and plastic surgery;
  • drug therapy in our own oncology day clinics;
  • a wide range of studies for all stages of the disease;
  • interdisciplinary oncology conferences;
  • psycho-oncological assistance;
  • modern radiation therapy;
  • consultations on family risks and genetic diagnostics;
  • counseling young patients wishing to have children;
  • comprehensive obstetric care for pregnant women.
Pancreas Center
The Pancreas Center at the LMU Clinic Munich offers a unique combination of interdisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, using state-of-the-art medicines, as well as surgical, interventional and radiotherapy procedures.

An important feature of the center is the ability to comprehensively treat all diseases of the pancreas at the highest level. Therefore, the focus is not only on the diagnosеiсs and treatment of malignant diseases of the pancreas, but also on the diagnosеiсs and treatment of cystic tumors, which are often a harbinger of oncology, acute and chronic pancreatitis, up to pancreas transplantation in type I diabetes.
Bladder Cancer Center
Personalized therapy for each patient at LMU Munich is aimed at achieving the highest efficiency and reducing the risk of possible complications. The LMU Bladder Cancer Center Munich offers competent cancer care. The main task is a comprehensive diagnostics and therapy of bladder neoplasms, ureter and renal pelvis. After a thorough diagnostics, the patient is prescribed individual therapy. The therapy regimen is always approved interdisciplinary, that is, with the participation of specialists from different fields, which helps to avoid making an erroneous decision.

Standard diagnostics includes laboratory tests, ultrasound of the genitourinary system, the study of the cellular composition of urine, cystoscopy and fluorescent diagnostics. These studies help to accurately determine the presence and type of pathological changes. To determine the stage of the tumor disease, additional studies are carried out, for example, CT with a contrast agent, MRI, skeletal scintigraphy.

During surgical interventions for bladder cancer, transurethral resection of the bladder is performed in combination with photodynamic diagnostics. At advanced stages of the disease, radical removal of the bladder, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are performed.
Colorectal Cancer Center
It is one of the leading centers in Germany. The specialists at the LMU Colorectal Cancer Center Munich provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care from diagnostics, prevention and early detection to long-term postoperative care after overcoming the disease. It uses both proven, well-established and innovative methods of therapy: endoscopic, including minimally invasive surgical procedures, as well as chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
The Center is certified by the German Cancer Society.
Endometriosis Center
It is important to remember that with prolonged improper treatment of endometriosis, a benign disease becomes malignant. Therefore, it is extremely important to undergo high-quality diagnostics and get the right recommendations from specialists.

The LMU Endometriosis Center Munich is a certified center for endometriosis of the highest level. The specialists have many years of medical experience and comply with all international criteria in the field of diagnosеiсs and treatment of endometriosis.

This benign disease in women requires the cooperation of specialists from other medical fields. For patients, the concept of therapy is selected on an individual basis after a detailed examination and personal consultation.
Head and Neck Cancer Center
The LMU Munich Head and Neck Cancer Center has a motivated team of doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals who offer patients optimal medical care. Its main task is the diagnostics and treatment of malignant neoplasms in the head and neck. Here, patients can undergo diagnostics using the most modern equipment. The data obtained are summarized and discussed at an interdisciplinary tumor boards which is attended by experienced representatives of various medical fields. Thus, the best individual form of therapy is determined for each patient.

If necessary, professional psycho-oncological assistance can be provided. All necessary measures are carried out in accordance with the latest developments and recommendations by medical specialists. This allows patients to effectively counteract cancer, minimize side effects, and improve the quality of life.

Another direction after oncological treatment is social reintegration. The center closely cooperates with rehabilitation institutions.
Cell Therapy Center
The therapeutic use of cell preparations opens up new perspectives in the fight against many diseases and represents a clinically and scientifically innovative field of work.
Patients with the following types of cancer are currently being treated with cellular drugs:
  • leukemia;
  • lymphomas, including multiple myeloma;
  • sarcomas;
  • germ cell tumors;
  • neuroblastoma;
  • non-small cell lung cancer.
This includes transplantation of one's own or someone else's blood stem cells and the use of cell preparations to support the body's own defense against tumor cells (adjuvant immunotherapy).
Endocrine Tumor Center
The LMU Endocrine Tumor Center Munich is a world-renowned center for the diagnostics and treatment of benign and malignant tumors of the hormone-producing glands, for instance, such diseases as adrenal carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and thyroid carcinoma.


The most modern methods are used for diagnostics and follow-up. These include imaging techniques: positron emission tomography (PET), CT and MRI, as well as specialized ultrasound. Sensitive and specific laboratory procedures help to establish a correct diagnosis and, over time, to initiate and adjust individual therapy.
Penile Cancer Center
The goal of the interdisciplinary penile cancer center of the LMU Munich clinics is patient-oriented and individually optimized therapy for penile cancer. One of the areas is to maintain the quality of life with the help of organ-preserving surgical methods. Years of experience in diagnostics, therapy and aftercare of this rare tumor means that affected patients can be offered an interdisciplinary, coordinated treatment concept at the highest medical level.
Neuroendocrine Tumors
The center specializes in providing interdisciplinary medical care to patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system. Specialists provide treatment at the highest level using the latest methods and technologies. The plan is drawn up individually for each patient at the interdisciplinary oncological council for neuroendocrine tumors. In addition, innovative diagnostic methods and clinical studies are used here to achieve a successful result.
Neuro-Oncology
The Center for Neuro-Oncology LMU Munich is certified by the German Cancer Society. Highly qualified experienced specialists use the latest techniques to fight tumors. Great importance is given to individual patient care from the moment of their first visit and throughout the entire period, which includes psychological assistance.
Hematology and Oncology
Neurosurgery
Maxillofacial Surgery
Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Orthopedics and Traumatology
Vascular Surgery
Cardiac Surgery
Endocrinology

Hematology and Oncology

LMU Munich covers a wide range of services and occupies a leading position among German university hospitals specializing in hematological and oncological diseases. Here, care is taken not only about the physical, but also about the psychological state of patients and their loved ones.

LMU Munich works in the following areas:
Immuno-Oncology
It is one of the most innovative areas of hemato-oncology. LMU Munich has all the advanced methods, such as immune response checkpoint inhibitors. This is a new class of anticancer drugs, different from traditional chemotherapy and targeted drugs. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has significantly improved performance in the fight against malignant tumors.

The specialists also work with the most modern diagnostic method — CAR-T cell therapy. These are immune cells that are genetically modified and can recognize a tumor. Cells are very effective in fighting them.
Lymphomas
LMU Мюнхен — всемирно известный центр, где проводится большое количество клинических исследований, например, по изучению лимфом низкой степени злокачественности GLSG и лимфом из клеток мантийной зоны.
Acute leukemia, Stem cell transplantation and Leukemia diagnostic laboratory
LMU Munich is a leading center for patients with acute leukemia with a wide range of clinical studies and several research groups. For the diagnostics of leukemia, it has its own laboratory, where research is carried out using the latest technologies.
Gastrointestinal Tumors
LMU Munich operates as a world-renowned training center in the field of gastrointestinal tumors and manages a large number of national and international research projects. Both early clinical trials and internationally approved studies are being conducted here. This allows to create an effective treatment plan for the patient.
Sarcomas and Hyperthermia
Another focus of LMU Munich is the care of patients diagnosed with bone and soft tissue sarcoma. In patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas, within the concept of multimodal therapy, regional deep hyperthermia is used in combination with chemotherapy. In addition, a variety of studies are being conducted on various subtypes of sarcoma.

Neurosurgery

The Department of Neurosurgery at LMU Munich uses the latest scientific advances in disease diagnostics and patient care. Great importance is attached to the selection of an individual treatment plan, according to the highest medical standards.
Neuro-Oncological Tumors of the Brain
Neuro-oncology deals with neoplastic diseases of the brain and spinal cord, as well as tumors of peripheral nerves. Diagnostics and therapy of brain tumors in adults and children is a key focus of the LMU Munich. For this, all the necessary diagnostic, surgical, conservative and therapeutic options are available.

The treatment of neurooncological diseases is carried out in close interdisciplinary collaboration with colleagues from neurology, neuropathology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, neuroradiology and the European Cyberknife Center.

The aim is to determine the best therapy concept for each patient in accordance with applicable international clinical and scientific standards. Therefore, in addition to therapeutic measures that have proven to be effective, ongoing clinical studies of various diseases are also offered.
Skull Base Surgery
Tumors of the skull base require special therapy, taking into account their growth, and being attentive to the cranial nerves responsible for hearing, touch, motor function of the face, tongue mobility and the act of swallowing, as well as eye coordination.

Tumors that are treated here:
  • acoustic neuromas;
  • meningiomas;
  • chordomas;
  • epidermoids and others.
Neurovascular Diseases
Treatment of diseases of the circulatory system of the brain and spinal cord is one of the main focuses of the LMU Munich clinic. The specialists deal with:
  • aneurysms
  • dural arteriovenous fistulas
  • arteriovenous malformations (AVM, angioma)
  • cavernomas
  • stroke.
At LMU Munich, the most modern treatment methods are used – endovascular, surgical, radiosurgical or conservative. The specialists at LMU Munich have many years of experience in the treatment of complex neurovascular diseases.
Spinal Neurosurgery
The department specializes in the treatment of all spinal diseases, for example:
  • degenerative syndromes of compression of the nerve roots and spinal cord caused by herniated discs, spinal stenosis, segmental instability
  • chronic neck and back pain, facet joint syndrome
  • traumatic injuries of the spine (fractures)
  • tumors of the spine and spinal cord
  • syndromes and spinal deformities.

The LMU Munich carries out all the necessary types of diagnostics, as well as treatment and rehabilitation techniques. Therapeutic measures include all evidence-based methods:
  • microsurgical minimally invasive decompressive operations
  • instrumental stabilizing operations in the area of the entire spine using neuronavigation and intraoperative computed tomography
  • drug blockade of the facet joints under CT control, cryotherapy of the facet joints
  • the use of implants to replace the intervertebral disc.
Functional Neurosurgery
Functional neurosurgery deals with the surgical restoration of impaired or defective functions of the nervous system that are not amenable to adequate medical treatment. The spectrum includes:
  • uncontrolled pain syndromes
  • movement disorders
  • spasticity.
In all areas, the LMU Munich has established interdisciplinary cooperation with departments such as neurology, physical medicine and the anesthesiology clinic. The optimal therapy is selected for patients.
Epilepsy Surgery
The neurosurgical treatment of epilepsy at LMU Munich aims to improve the quality of life and psychosocial well-being of patients when medical therapy fails. The main goal of epilepsy surgery is to eliminate seizures or at least significantly reduce their frequency without causing neurological or neuropsychological deficits. Surgical treatment of epilepsy has a positive effect on the number of recurrent seizures and further development in childhood.

Maxillofacial Surgery

LMU Munich provides diagnostics and surgery for diseases of the oral cavity, jaws, face and upper body. Depending on the condition and severity, treatment can be performed on an outpatient or inpatient basis. The following groups of diseases are diagnosed and treated:
Surgical diseases in the area of teeth and alveolar process
These include surgical extraction of teeth, resection of root tips, and treatment of jaw cysts.
Treatment of inflammation of bones and soft tissues in the oral and maxillofacial region
These include abscesses and suppurations of bones and soft tissues, inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, infected cysts.
Treatment of fractures of the facial skull and wounds of the soft tissues of the face
Fractures of the upper and lower jaws can be treated conservatively or through surgery. Treatment of soft tissue injuries can be carried out using microsurgical techniques, as well as in collaboration with a neurosurgeon or ENT specialist.
Treatment of congenital malformations of the jaw (dysgnathia)
Correction of the position of the upper and lower jaw is carried out surgically. It is also possible to lengthen the jawbone. This correction is done in close cooperation with the orthodontist.
Treatment of congenital malformations
Cleft lip and palate are treated through a surgery. Primary operations are performed first, then corrective operations. The orthodontist takes an active part in the treatment.
Implantology and pre-prosthetic surgery
To replace lost teeth, artificial tooth roots, so-called dental implants, are used in the jawbone. If there is enough bone, they can be inserted directly into the designated area of the jaw. Otherwise, before or during implantation, surgical manipulations must be carried out in order to improve the so-called implant site.
Benign and malignant tumors
Surgical treatment for various tumors depends on the result of the tissue examination, the location and extent of the tumors, and the condition of the patient. In the case of malignant tumors, combined treatment is often used: surgical treatment followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy.
Temporomandibular disorders
The LMU Munich clinic provides non-invasive and invasive diagnostics, as well as surgical treatment of diseases of the temporomandibular joint. The treatment is carried out in close cooperation with a specialist in dental prosthetics.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Patients with congenital or acquired soft tissue defects of the face and neck, as well as jaw bones, undergo all the necessary diagnostics in order to receive effective treatment. If necessary, transplantation of tissues and bone parts is performed. Depending on the problem, such transplants are performed partly as free tissue grafting, partly as microsurgical tissue grafting. In addition to restorative procedures, cosmetic procedures are performed on the jaws and soft tissues of the face.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Medical care is tailored to the individual needs of patients. Clinical studies carried out at an early stage allow for an effective treatment plan. Close interdisciplinary cooperation with clinics and institutes of the Munich University Hospital allows to conduct rapid diagnostics and therapy.

Modern endoscopy opens up wide possibilities in treatment. Diagnostic endoscopy with high resolution viewing and sampling, in order to distinguish between benign and malignant diseases, plays a huge role in the selection and correction of therapy. This often helps to avoid surgical interventions.

Range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures:
Gastroscopy
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is an endoscopy of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. This is the absolute standard of diagnostics. The high-resolution optics of endoscopes in HD or 4K format allow for a qualitative and detailed assessment of the mucosa, as well as macroanatomy.
Colonoscopy
Endoscopy of the colon and lower small intestine. The aim is to identify inflammatory and tumor-like changes.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
The procedure allows therapeutic interventions on the bile or pancreatic ducts. With few exceptions, it is not used for diagnostics because there is a risk of acute inflammation of the pancreas on first ERCP. Instead, endosonography or MRCP (Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) are safe alternatives for diagnosing the bile ducts and pancreas.
Endosonography
Internal ultrasound examination (sonography). An ultrasound probe is inserted into the esophagus, stomach, or intestines using an endoscope. In this way, clearer images of deeply located organs can be obtained.

Orthopedics and Traumatology

The highly qualified specialists of LMU Munich provide qualified care for chronic and degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
Patients receive a full range of first-class medical care in accordance with advanced medical standards.
Orthopaedic Tumors
LMU has a team of experienced doctors specializing in tumor orthopedics, plastic surgery, surgery, radiology, pediatric oncology, radiation therapy and pathology. The treatment uses modern surgical and oncological procedures.

One of the most difficult clinical pictures, both in terms of diagnostics and therapy, are tumors of the musculoskeletal system. High-resolution MRI is used in modern diagnostics of such tumors. An effective solution to this problem may be the latest implants, minimally invasive tumor ablation under CT-control. These methods allow not only to remove the tumor but also to preserve the functionality of the limbs.

Amputation, which was the most common treatment for malignant bone tumors until the 1970s, is now only needed in isolated cases.
Trauma Surgery
The LMU Munich center specializes in all types of injuries, including severe ones. The field of
trauma surgery covers the entire spectrum of treatment of injuries, bones and soft tissues. An important advantage is the close interdisciplinary cooperation with all departments of the clinic. This provides comprehensive treatment of injuries of any complexity.
Septic Surgery
The Septic Surgery Center LMU Munich specializes in the treatment of complex wounds of lower extremities. Experienced specialists of the center, in close cooperation with colleagues from other medical fields, develop a treatment concept specially adapted for a particular patient. Treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis, and if necessary, inpatient. Many wounds can be healed with conservative therapy. However, in some cases, surgical therapy is necessary.
3D-Surgery and Clinical Tissue Regeneration
The Center for Orthopedics and Traumatology LMU Munich deals with the elimination of bone defects, deformities and differences in the length of lower limbs. The qualifications of the center's specialists meet a high international level.
The center treats:
  • congenital bone defects, deformities;
  • acquired bone defects, deformities: after an accident / after poliomyelitis and other pathologies;
  • leg length discrepancy;
  • differences in arm length (eg, shoulder, collarbone);
  • X-legs:
  • torsion deformations (twisting inward or outward);
  • cartilage damage during displacement;
  • false joints (insufficient bone healing / so-called pseudoarthrosis);
  • bone defects (such as bone loss due to an accident, tumor, or infection).

Vascular Surgery

The Department of Vascular Surgery at LMU Munich offers a wide range of treatments, from complex aortic surgeries to endovenous sclerotherapy of varicose veins using radiowaves. In addition, for patients with serious vascular diseases, an individual interdisciplinary treatment concept is available.
Aortic Aneurysm (Widening of the Main Artery)
Accurate diagnostics allows you to start therapy before the aorta's size reaches critical excess. LMU Munich specializes in the treatment of this complex clinical picture and offers patients an individualized treatment plan. Minimally invasive stent treatment (vascular support) or open surgery on the thoracic aorta can be done.
Peripheral Artery Disease
Calcificiation in arterial blood vessels often lead to narrowing (stenosis) or even occlusion of the vessels. Depending on the severity and location of these vascular changes, the patient may experience corresponding symptoms — the so-called "intermittent claudication". If the vascular disease is aggravated, pains appear at rest.

In close collaboration with the Vascular Centre, LMU Munich offers both proven and innovative treatments. These can be both balloon expansions of the smallest vessels, and major operations on the main artery (aorta).
Carotid Artery Stenosis
Narrowings in the area of the internal carotid arteries may be discovered incidentally when the patient already had neurological disorders or a stroke. A higher degree of constriction can lead to the transfer of thrombs. Depending on the size of the blood clot, severe circulatory disorders can occur in the affected area of the brain.

The goal of carotid artery narrowing therapy is to prevent stroke. With a high degree of narrowing, prevention plays an important role which is selected individually together with neurologists and neuroradiologists.
Phlebeurysm
Varicose veins are a common disease. The cause is dysfunctional venous valves, due to which blood "flows" into the legs. This creates the typically tortuous veins on the thigh and lower leg. For high-quality treatment, it is necessary to conduct an accurate comprehensive diagnostics in order to select an effective therapy, and, if necessary, to perform a vascular surgery. In the LMU Munich clinic, instead of the classic vein removal, a modern minimally invasive procedure performed with a thermoprobe or a laser device can be recommended. It is performed under local anesthesia and allows you to quickly recover after surgery.

The Department of Vascular Surgery at LMU Munich has many years of experience in the field of vein diseases, especially in very complex and difficult cases.
Dialysis access (Bypass, Installation of a Dialysis Catheter)
A high level of specialization in vascular surgery also lies in the installation and correction of dialysis access, which is a lifeline for patients with severe kidney dysfunction. In addition to the primary initial installation of the so-called "arteriovenous fistula", patients who have undergone multiple previous operations also undergo complex reconstructive operations. At LMU Munich, effective treatment is carried out in close cooperation with qualified specialists in the fields of nephrology, angiology and interventional radiology.

The LMU Clinic Munich is fitted up with the latest generation of diagnostic equipment such as computed and magnetic resonance angiography. Thanks to high-quality diagnostics, it is possible to accurately assess the pathology of any vessel and make the right decision in the method of therapy. Together with the partners of the Vascular Center, the Vascular Surgery Department of the LMU Munich performs all the diagnostic procedures necessary to clarify diseases of the arteries and veins:
Arterial Diagnostics
  • Dopplerography
  • Ultrasound in B-mode
  • Duplex sonography
  • Color-coded duplex sonography
  • Percutaneous measurement of post-capillary microcirculation or post-capillary oxygen saturation
Venous Diagnostics
  • Segment oscillography
  • Light reflection rheography (LRR)
  • Photoplethysmography (PPG)
  • Phlebodynometry
Intraoperative Monitoring/Diagnostics
  • Доплеровское измерение кровотока
  • Цифровая субтракционная ангиография
  • Интраоперационный нейромониторинг путем непрерывной регистрации СЭП (сенсомоторных вызванных потенциалов) и транскраниальной допплерографии
  • Интраоперационный нейромониторинг с помощью транскраниальной допплерографии
  • Эндовенозная варикозная терапия
  • Радиочастотная облитерация (закрытие ВНУС)
  • Лазерная облитерация

Cardiac Surgery

The Department of Cardiac Surgery at LMU Munich has a highly qualified team of doctors, nurses and administrative staff who are focused on quality patient care. Disease control concepts are based on the latest scientific discoveries as well as many years of experience. Close cooperation with specialists from other medical fields allows for a flexible and holistic approach to the problem of a particular patient.
Heart Failure
Chronic heart failure is often the final stage of many cardiac diseases of various etiologies. Heart failure usually presents with symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling. The cardiology of the LMU Clinic Munich uses the most modern and safe methods for the treatment of heart failure. If necessary, implantation of the following systems is carried out:
  • 3-chamber pacemakers (CRT) due to asynchronous ventricular function;
  • mechanical pumps (LVAD) to support left ventricular function;
  • microaxial pumps for short-term support of the left ventricle;
  • extracorporeal pumps for heart and lung support (ECLS, ECMO).
Cardiac Ablation
Cardiac arrhythmias may manifest as a slow or rapid heartbeat. If the heart rate is too low, a pacemaker may be used. A fast heart rate can lead to atrial fibrillation and may require implantation of a defibrillator. In severe forms of heart failure, a three-chamber system is implanted, which improves cardiac output by synchronizing the work of the heart.

LMU Munich has many years of experience in the implantation of pacemaker systems. They are served in an interdisciplinary collaboration of cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and pediatric cardiologists in accordance with national and international guidelines. Particular attention in the department is paid to the conversion of systems and the removal of infected or defective pacemaker and defibrillator electrodes. More than 120 such complex interventions are performed annually.
Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
The goal of treating coronary heart disease is to improve blood circulation in problem areas of the myocardium using bypass surgery. Coronary bypass surgery eliminates angina pectoris and significantly increases the survival rate.

To achieve the best results and maximum safety, LMU Munich has developed a special concept that includes the following aspects:
  • use of multiple arteries, if possible, to improve long-term prognosis;
  • preferably endoscopic bypass;
  • coated minimized cardiopulmonary bypass systems to reduce side effects;
  • measures to save blood;
  • direct quality control through intraoperative measurement of blood flow in the vessel during bypass.
Circulatory Support Systems
Mechanical circulatory support systems are needed to keep the patient alive during surgery until a donor heart is transplanted, or as a possible alternative form of therapy for end-stage heart failure.

The Berlin-Heart Excor is used at the LMU Clinic Munich as a pneumatically driven mechanical circulatory support system. This system helps to support one or both chambers of the heart at the same time.
Heart Transplantation
The LMU Clinic Munich is one of the largest centers in Germany in the field of heart transplantation for children and adults. The center has performed more than 1,200 heart transplants since 1981. Significant events in the activities of the center were:
  • first heart transplant in Germany;
  • creation and standardization of the transport service necessary for the transport of a patient for heart transplantation over long distances by helicopter or aircraft in Central Europe;
  • first heart-lung transplant in Germany;
  • first heart-lung-liver transplantation in Germany in collaboration with a surgical clinic.
Heart transplantation can also be considered in the elderly (after 60 years) if there are no serious additional organ diseases. The clinic has developed a very modern and successful treatment regimen after transplantation, which leads to an exceptionally good survival rate.
Aortic Surgery
Pathological changes in the aorta in the chest area are usually expansions (aneurysms) due to congenital or acquired weakness of the vascular wall. This can lead to thinning or rupture of the vessel wall. The disease is especially insidious in that 95% of patients are completely asymptomatic. Often the diagnostics is discovered incidentally, especially in patients with high blood pressure. The risk increases with the presence of concomitant diseases, as well as with smoking and stress. The absolute priority of cardiac surgery at the LMU Munich clinic is complex aortic surgery. Treatment is always interdisciplinary and individual. Basically, only the latest generation prostheses are used. Some of them are made individually for the patient. In addition, there are many international partnerships with leading institutions around the world.
Heart Valve Surgery
Heart valve disease is manifested by symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, cardiac arrhythmias, or sudden loss of consciousness. Therapies are varied and include medical, open surgical, and catheter procedures. Therapy should always be selected individually, taking into account concomitant diseases. From a surgical point of view, the principle applies that reconstructive procedures are preferable to replacement. Currently, many interventions can already be performed minimally invasively. In case of need for replacement, the LMU Munich Clinic uses the latest generation of biological and mechanical prostheses.

Endocrinology (Diabetology and Metabolism)

Provides services in all areas of endocrinology, including diabetology and metabolism. To do this, LMU Munich has a modern station 1A, whose staff is constantly improving their skills. It provides highly specialized and interdisciplinary care for complex diseases. In 2021, a new building with modern infrastructure was built, where there is a private ward 1B for patients of the Center for Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism. All types of modern diagnostics and treatment procedures are available in the center.
Diabetology
For people with diabetes, targeted and individual therapy is selected using the best facilities of the center, such as:


  • emergency care for severe metabolic imbalances and initial manifestations;
  • the use of insulin pumps and digital technologies in the treatment of diabetes mellitus;
  • individually adapted therapy programs lasting up to 4 months in agreement with the attending physician;
  • therapy of all forms of diabetes during pregnancy;
  • intensive care for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus to induce remission;
  • clinical research/research participation.


Metabolism
For adult patients with rare congenital metabolic diseases and serious blood lipid disorders, specialized outpatient care structures are offered. It treats patients with proven cardiovascular diseases and severe lipid disorders that are not amenable to any other treatment.

Congenital metabolic diseases include, on the one hand, a group of diseases with predominant manifestations in childhood, and on the other hand, diseases that manifest themselves only in adulthood. Early diagnostics of congenital metabolic diseases in children leads to positive treatment outcomes. At the same time, there are diseases that do not appear until adulthood, such as phenylketonuria, galactosemia, urea cycle disorders, fatty acid oxidation disorders, glycogenosis, severe familial lipid metabolism disorders, and others. Diagnostics of such diseases is often difficult and requires the use of special laboratory methods.

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Urology
Pediatric Cardiology
Thoracic Surgery
Ophthalmology
Infectious and Tropical Medicine
IVF
Gynecology and Obstetrics
Neurology

Urology

LMU Munich has an excellent reputation and positions itself as a patient-centered clinic offering maximum care and the full range of urological examinations and therapy options at the highest level. The highest competence of specialists, combined with a large selection of proven and modern methods, allows you to individually approach the solution of the problem, based on diagnostic data.
Da Vinci Surgery
Since 2009, most of the minimally invasive surgeries at LMU Munich have been performed using a state-of-the-art system, the da Vinci X surgical robot from Intuitive Surgical. The da Vinci Surgical System combines the benefits of minimally invasive surgery with "high resolution" 3D imaging techniques and offers unique surgical instrument capabilities. With the help of Da Vinci, many different interventions for prostate cancer have been carried out. In addition, this system can be used to perform minimally invasive or partial removal of the kidney, as well as the so-called renal pelvis plastic surgery.

It should be emphasized that the operating system does not perform a single step of the surgery on its own but is just an "extension of the hand" of the surgeon. It helps preserve functional structures, such as nerve fibers, by displaying the surgical area in three dimensions with high resolution. The operator's control commands are transmitted to particularly flexible minimally invasive instruments that do not damage healthy tissues.


Focal Therapy for Prostate Cancer
Focal therapy is a minimally invasive method for prostate carcinoma. LMU Munich offers vascular photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer with the photoactive substance padeliparfin, which, by activating laser light, achieves targeted elimination of tumor foci while maintaining the functions of the organ.
Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate
The department offers enucleation of the prostate with a holmium laser as a standard treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. This procedure has completely replaced the surgical intervention by incision of the abdominal wall and bladder, which was used before. A feature of the method is layer-by-layer preparation, when a connecting layer is created with the help of a holmium laser between the capsule of the prostate gland and the enlarged internal gland, the so-called adenoma formed in the bladder.

In the Urology Department of the LMU University Hospital Munich offers treatment of:
Prostatic Hyperplasia
The LMU Urology Clinic Munich pays special attention to benign prostatic hyperplasia. When choosing the available methods of surgical intervention, the possible risks for the patient should be taken into account. Transurethral resection of the prostate is the gold standard, but new techniques have emerged over the past decade. There are resection procedures, enucleation procedures, vaporization procedures and thermal procedures.
Urethral Stricture
The main problem with the treatment of urethral strictures is that this disease has a high tendency to relapse after therapy. The likelihood of such a relapse depends on the chosen method of therapy. At LMU Munich, all common surgical procedures are offered, so that individual therapy can be optimally adapted to each patient,depending on the previous history and comorbidities.
Prostate Carcinoma
It is the most common malignant tumor in men. Often there are aggressive forms that require serious attention to avoid metastases and prevent death. Therefore, early preventive diagnosis is of great importance, since this type of cancer can be successfully combated with timely detection.

When a carcinoma is detected, additional tests are performed, such as skeletal scintigraphy and computed tomography, the so-called staging studies, to further narrow the degree of local spread and the possible presence of secondary tumors (metastases).
Bladder Cancer
The Bladder Tumor Center LMU Munich is specialized in the diagnostics and treatment of bladder cancer. Due to the large number of surgical procedures in the center, the specialists have extensive experience in this field.
Kidney Carcinoma
After prostate and bladder carcinomas, renal cell carcinoma is the third most common urological cancer and ranks seventh among all cancers. In most cases, the detection of this carcinoma occurs during a general examination of the patient using ultrasound or computed tomography. During ultrasound, there is a risk that small tumors may be missed if the kidney examination is done only for surgery. Smaller tumors can only be detected after a long, thorough examination using modern equipment.

Pediatric Cardiology

The polyclinic of the Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Pediatric Intensive Care at the LMU Munich treats newborns, children, and adolescents with congenital heart defects.

The range of procedures includes examinations such as:
  • cardiovascular research;
  • electrocardiogram (ECG);
  • Holter ECG;
  • Cardiac stress test;
  • Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart).
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
It is a type of heart-lung machine. Children with severe cardiopulmonary failure who are not responding to medical therapy and regular ventilation need EMO support. Children with heart disease, whose own cardiac output has not yet fully recovered from surgery, sometimes require EMO for several days. In children with lung disease who do not have severely impaired heart function, only lung function can be replaced with EMO. In this case, venous cannulation is indicated.
Cardiac Catheter. Procedures (interventions) in the Cardiac Catheter Laboratory
The LMU Clinic Munich offers all currently available interventional therapy options:

  • collateral vessels (dilation or occlusion, depending on the heart disease);
  • dilatation of stenosis of the valve of the pulmonary artery;
  • stent valve implantation;
  • dilatation of pulmonary artery stenosis (peripheral, including stent implantation, cutting balloon);
  • dilatation of aortic valve stenosis;
  • stenosis of the isthmus of the aorta;
  • hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy;
  • electrophysiology with radiofrequency ablation.
Prenatal Diagnostics
The severity of heart disease in most cases can be assessed using fetal echocardiography (ultrasound in the uterus). In any case, the diagnosis must be confirmed after birth by another ultrasound.

Thanks to advances in sonography, many heart defects can now be diagnosed in utero before the 20th week of pregnancy. Many heart defects can now be completely corrected with surgery, with the risk of intervention typically being less than five percent.

Thoracic Surgery

The LMU Munich clinic provides the full range of modern diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the field of lung surgery. A team of experienced specialists conducts consultations, develops surgical treatment programs for each patient individually, draws up an individual care plan before and after surgery. The LMU Clinic Munich has the most modern operating center for surgery. Here, interventions of a highly specialized nature are carried out, for example, minimally invasive operations for tumor diseases or lung transplantation.
Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery
Videothoracoscopy is a surgical method that is used to treat diseases of the chest cavity in a minimally invasive way.

This surgical method is increasingly preferred to thoracotomy (open surgery of the chest cavity). Small access reduces pain so mobilization occurs sooner and patients can usually leave the hospital after a few days. In addition, VATS shows excellent cosmetic results due to the very small remaining scar.
Tracheal Surgery
Tracheal surgery is one of the most complex interventions in lung surgery and requires specialized multidisciplinary collaboration and patient care.

In a specialized center, individual therapy is selected for each patient, if necessary, surgeries are performed to remove a narrow section of the trachea. After surgery, patients are treated in a highly specialized ICU. Depending on the results of the operation, bronchoscopy and ablation with a laser or argon beam are suggested. In some cases, it is necessary to place a stent.
Pectus excavatum
Funnel chest is a depression of the sternum and chest caused by changes in the chest and occurs mainly in boys. A number of conservative and surgical procedures are available to combat the pathology (insertion of the implant under the skin, straightening using the Nuss keyhole technique or the open Ravic/modified Erlangen technique). In the vast majority of cases, pectus excavatum can be corrected with minimally invasive surgery according to Donald Nuss. Open surgery may only be indicated if significant asymmetry is present.
Keel chest
A disease arising from a malformation of the ribs and manifested by protrusion of the sternum. At present, effective minimally invasive surgical methods have not yet been established, therefore, in the case of surgery, an open Ravitch Procedure is usually used: the sternum is exposed and the rib attachments on both sides are mainly crossed or incised. After the intervention, it is important to conduct effective analgesic therapy and exercise therapy.
Thymoma
It is a rare tumor disease of the thymus. First, a diagnosis is established with the help of computed tomography. A biopsy is performed to determine benign and malignant thymomas. For both benign and malignant thymoma, surgical removal of the thymus by thoracoscopy or thoracotomy is recommended.
Emphysema
A disease in which the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs) expand and eventually collapse. Medical therapy consists of quitting smoking, inhaling sprays to improve lung function, and giving oxygen. If these overly enlarged areas of the lung are in one of the five lobes of the lung, part or all of the lobe may be surgically removed. In some cases, the only option is a lung transplant.
Lung Metastases
They are secondary neoplasms that occur in the lungs with tumor diseases. In such cases, PET examination is important in diagnostics in order to exclude other possible foci of metastases. The decision to surgically remove lung metastases is made individually at tumor board together with medical specialists from different fields (surgeons, oncologists, radiologists, radiation therapists, pathologists, etc.).
Bronchogenic carcinoma
Bronchogenic carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors and is often triggered by smoking. It is possible to defeat the disease in the early stages. Thorough diagnostics with pulmonary endoscopy, chest and abdominal CT is essential to determine the stage of the disease and ensure effective therapy.
Endoscopy
The Department of Thoracic Surgery at LMU Munich offers the entire range of diagnostic procedures for examining the lungs. A bronchoscope, lasers, and argon emitters can be used to examine the lungs.
Pleural empyema
Accumulation of infected fluid and pus between the lining of the lungs and the pleura. At an early stage, it is possible to remove infected fluid and purulent deposits from the chest through a small incision. In more advanced stages of the disease, it is necessary to carry out open operations more often in order to be able to completely remove pronounced plaque.

Ophthalmology

The specialists of the LMU Clinic Munich are involved in research activities at the international level. Professional exchange of experience with the leading ophthalmological clinics of the world is of great importance. Thanks to modern diagnostics and the latest minimally invasive methods, the treatment of ophthalmic diseases has reached the highest level.
Refractive Surgery
Correction of ametropia (farsightedness, myopia, astigmatism, presbyopia) with the help of surgical (laser) intervention. The main goal is to get rid of assistive devices (glasses or contact lenses) in everyday life. Using modern femtosecond laser and excimer laser technology, ametropia can be treated gently and with a high level of comfort. In case of higher ametropia, lens surgery procedures are used, either in the form of implantation of additional lens systems to strengthen the body's own lens, or in the form of replacement of refractive lenses to correct presbyopia with modern artificial lenses (multifocal lenses). All treatment procedures are performed on an outpatient basis and under local anesthesia using drip anesthesia.
Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most important and common causes of blindness in people of working age in industrialized countries, and perhaps the most dangerous complication for diabetic patients. However, thanks to recent innovations in diabetology and ophthalmology, it is now possible to save vision that in the recent past would have been considered irreversibly lost. Regular checks of the fundus with a dilated pupil by an ophthalmologist are especially important, since it is the initial stages of changes that can be asymptomatic for the patient.
Uveitis
Inflammation of the inside of the eye. Depending on the intensity and duration of the inflammation, vision deteriorates and, in rare cases, can lead to blindness. Conventional therapy for uveitis primarily involves cortisone and, if necessary, immunosuppressants. In case of infections, appropriate antibiotics are used if necessary.
Cataract
Eye lens cloudiness results in blurred vision and increased sensitivity to bright light. The only option is surgery. If desired, it can be performed using a modern femtosecond laser which provides increased accuracy. In addition, slight astigmatism can be corrected at the same time.
Cornea
Each layer of the cornea can develop its own disease or changes that affect vision. Most of these can be treated with eye drops. However, if corneal opacity and scarring develop as a result of infections or trauma, they must be operated on.
Corneal Transplantation
In case of end-to-end corneal transplantation, a complete donor disk with all layers of the cornea is transplanted. This technique is suitable for patients in whom all parts of the cornea are affected. At LMU Munich, whenever possible, specialists perform layer-by-layer transplantation in order to preserve the healthy layers of the cornea. Doctors of the clinic have vast experience and annually transplant about 5,000 donor corneas.
Dry Eyes
With dry eyes, not only the tear film is affected, but the entire surface of the eye, the lacrimal and sebaceous glands along the edge of the eyelid. The gold standard for the treatment of dry eye syndrome are tear substitutes, available in a variety of formulations and textures. It can be drops, gels or ointments. In case of severe dry eyes, small silicone plugs can be inserted into the lacrimal canal to keep the tears in the eye longer.
Choroidal Melanomas — Tumors of the Choroid and Iris
The choroid (uvea) is the vascular layer that lines the inside of the eyeball. It continues forward into the iris. Between them lies only the radiant body (ciliary body) with ciliary muscles.
For accurate diagnostics and successful treatment of choroidal melanoma, high-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy of the iris and ciliary body is performed.

Infectious and Tropical Medicine

The Department of Infectious and Tropical Medicine at LMU Munich has extensive laboratory diagnostic capabilities. More than 40,000 special tropical medical examinations are carried out here annually using modern immunological and molecular biological methods. It is important for the specialists of the department to work on improving protection against infectious diseases through vaccination. The highly qualified specialists of the department, together with well-known vaccine developers, have been engaged in research and work on new developments and improvements in vaccines for almost 20 years.

Important aims of clinical research are to test the efficacy and safety of a vaccine, to improve it, to obtain detailed scientific knowledge and to find innovative ways in the field of vaccination.

The department specializes in:
  • control of infectious and tropical diseases;
  • travel medicine advice and vaccination advice;
  • tropical medical laboratory diagnostics for clinics and doctors throughout Germany;
  • consulting service for doctors and clinics.

IVF

The LMU IVF Center Munich employs the best specialists in the field of reproduction, hormones and family planning.
The center's professionals work closely with colleagues from various fields of medicine.
Hormone Testing
Hormonal testing is a very important and necessary measure to find out the causes of infertility and evaluate the menstrual cycle. In the laboratory of the center, patients have the opportunity to take all the necessary tests for hormones and get the results as soon as possible.
Ultrasonography
Ультразвуковое обследование является обязательной процедурой в процессе определения причин бесплодия. Узи дает возможность детально обследовать органы малого таза женщины, следить за ростом фолликулов в течении нормального цикла или во время гормональной стимуляции. Центр оснащен самым современным оборудованием.
Spermiogram
The specialists of the LMU IVF Center Munich work closely with their colleagues in the field of urology and andrology. As part of the therapy, they carry out spermiograms in a laboratory under strict quality control by the German Society for Andrology. Correct spermiogram is absolutely essential to prepare a treatment plan.
Tubal Testing
Due to infections, endometriosis, or other causes, the fallopian tubes can grow together and stick together so that sperm can no longer reach the egg. Fallopian tube disease or blockage is a common cause of infertility.
Abdominal Endoscopy (Laparoscopy)
In cases where there is a suspicion of adhesions in the fallopian tubes or suspicion of endometriosis, clinic specialists may recommend laparoscopy. This procedure is done under general anesthesia and usually requires a one to two day hospital stay. The advantage of laparoscopy is that the procedure allows you to make a direct examination of all organs and, if necessary, eliminate problems in the form of cysts, adhesions, endometriosis.
Genetic Examination
In certain cases, genetic testing is required to determine the cause of infertility. If necessary, various studies of genes or chromosomes can be carried out using a blood test. Genetic counseling may also be helpful for couples who are considering ICSI therapy.
Hysteroscopy
If, after a detailed examination, there is a suspicion of congenital or acquired changes in the muscular wall or uterine mucosa, the patient may be offered endoscopic procedures.

Gynecology and Obstetrics

General gynecology and benign diseases. The specialists of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at LMU Munich provide consultations and therapy for infectious diseases, benign changes, cycle disorders and postmenopausal bleeding. In addition, diseases that occur after childbirth, such as fever, breast infections, etc., are treated here. A thorough diagnostics of pain in the lower abdomen, suspicion of ectopic pregnancy, bleeding in the early stages of pregnancy is carried out. After examinations, the necessary therapy is selected.

Pregnancy and childbirth. The center offers a full range of prenatal diagnostics:
  • measurement of collar transparency;
  • screening for preeclampsia;
  • ultrasound of malformations;
  • diagnostic puncture.
These examinations allow to avoid complications during pregnancy. The specialists of the LMU Clinic Munich, together with colleagues from other areas of medicine, advise pregnant women in the fields of neonatology, pediatric surgery, pediatric cardiology, pediatric cardiac surgery and pediatric neurosurgery. In addition, services are provided for the management of pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal care at the highest level.

Neurology

The Department of Neurology at LMU Munich has the most modern equipment for the diagnostics and treatment of neurological diseases, as well as a staff of experienced highly qualified specialists.
Diseases of the Muscle Tissue
Currently, muscle biopsy is commonly used as a second method of diagnosing hereditary degenerative and metabolic myopathies after primary genetic diagnostics. Muscle biopsy can also be used to perform a detailed diagnostics in order to detect the loss of known proteins involved in muscular dystrophies. This analysis is performed using a combination of immunohistochemistry in Western blot technology.

Analysis of a muscle biopsy with standard histology and histochemistry stains allows a clear clinical picture to be seen. In addition to the differentiation of neurogenic and myogenic tissue syndrome, there is a specific differentiation into inflammatory muscle diseases, metabolic or toxic myopathies.
Mitochondrial Diagnostics
In addition to histology, mitochondrial diagnostics of muscle tissue can be performed at the LMU Munich Clinic. External samples may also be sent to a laboratory for genetic and biochemical testing. Despite the fact that there has been significant progress in the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases in recent years, in some cases there are difficulties in making a diagnosis. Only in a few exceptional cases, such as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, can a presumptive diagnosis be made on the basis of clinical symptoms, which can then be confirmed by simple genetic procedures, based on a blood test.
Histology of the Peripheral Nerves
Nerve biopsy is the final link in the diagnostic chain and serves to confirm the diagnosis, especially when inflammatory neuropathy is suspected. First of all, it is vasculitis, which can occur in isolation in the peripheral nerve or as a systemic disease with additional multiple organ damage. In this case, when symptoms appear, it is necessary to take a biopsy as soon as possible before the use of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Thus, it is possible to reduce or completely prevent inflammatory processes in the nervous tissue. A muscle biopsy performed at the same time may increase the likelihood of successful diagnostics.
Myopathies
It is a group of diseases are based on various disorders in the metabolism and structure of muscle tissue, leading to a decrease in the strength of the affected muscles and limitation of motor activity.

A group of diseases associated with various disorders of metabolism and the structure of muscle tissue, which lead to muscle weakness, limit motor activity. Important preventive measures are regular monitoring of laboratory parameters, ultrasound of the heart, and examination of lung functions.
Friedreich's Ataxia
Autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease. Unfortunately, etiotropic therapy against Friedreich's ataxia does not yet exist. An annual examination is recommended for the timely detection of heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Various medications are available to relieve the symptoms of spasticity. The main components of symptomatic therapy are physiotherapy and speech therapy, which can alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. If there is a pronounced scoliosis and a hollow foot, treatment can be carried out either conservatively or surgically.
Rhabdomyolysis
The syndrome is an extreme degree of myopathy which is characterized by the destruction of muscle tissue cells, a sharp increase in the level of creatine kinase and myoglobin, myoglobinuria, and the development of acute renal failure. Therapy is selected depending on the underlying disease of each individual patient.
Polyneuropathy
Acquired and hereditary diseases, which may be part of a systemic disease or be limited to peripheral nerve damage. The basis of the diagnostics of polyneuropathy is a thorough clinical examination, history taking and electrophysiology, and if the results of extensive laboratory diagnostics do not determine the cause of neuropathy, then CSF studies, nerve biopsy and molecular genetic testing are necessary.

Infrastructure of LMU Clinic Munich

For the convenience of patients, the infrastructure at LMU Munich is very well thought out. Patients are provided with comfortable rooms equipped with everything necessary, including a private bathroom with a shower. Internet connection is possible upon request. On the territory of LMU Munich there is a beautiful garden, there is also a bank, an ATM, a shop. Meals, including vegetarian, are provided for patients and their accompanying persons.

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